In 1839, Robert Smalls was born into slavery in Beaufort, South Carolina. As a slave, he worked in the Charleston shipyards. After learning the local harbor and surrounding waters, 23-year-old Robert Smalls began piloting a steam-powered supply ship called the Planter. Though Robert Smalls had many responsibilities, as a slave he did not have his freedom. During the Civil War, Robert Smalls, his family, and his friends made a daring escape from slavery by cruising the Planter out of Charleston Harbor to Union territory.
- 4.3 Demonstrate an understanding of the expansion and growth of South Carolina and the United States between 18001850.
- 8.3 Demonstrate an understanding of conflict and compromise in South Carolina, the Southern region, and the United States as a result of sectionalism between the period 18161865.
- 8.4 Demonstrate an understanding of South Carolinas role in and response to the dynamic economic, political, and social developments in the United States and around the world during the period 18621929.