Described as courageous, fearless, confident, faithful, committed, humble and a man of integrity, the Rev. Joseph Armstrong DeLaine was the primary impetus behind the Clarendon County desegregation cases. Born outside of Manning, S.C. he came from a family of proud, self-possessed people of some means. The 1931 Allen University graduate worked in various areas of the state before returning to Clarendon County. He quickly became a community leader organizing the county's first branch of the NAACP (1943) and securing educational opportunities for black veterans. Due to his involvement in civil rights, Rev. DeLaine was fired from his job as principal.
- This indicator was designed to promote inquiry into military and economic policies during World War II, to include the significance of military bases in South Carolina. This indicator was also developed to foster inquiry into postwar economic developments and demographic changes, to include the immigration of Jewish refugees following the Holocaust.