Charles II (1630-1685) was the Stuart King of England, Scotland, and Ireland who awarded the province of South Carolina to the 8 Proprietors who settled a colony there. The name "Carolina" was adopted in his honor, from the Latin spelling of his name. His childhood was under the shadow of the growing resentment by Puritans against his father Charles I's attempts to thwart Parliament. With the outbreak of the Puritan Civil War in 1640, and the beheading of Charles I in 1649, the young Charles II went into exile in France. The end of the Puritan Revolution in 1660 returned Charles II to his throne. The Proprietors of Carolina were a powerful group of men who had been instrumental in bringing the rule of the Puritan Protector, Oliver Cromwell, to an end, and restoring the monarchy. His reign as monarch was characterized by flamboyant living, in vivid contrast to the moralistic and spare regimen of the Puritans who preceded him.