Rome had transitioned from a republic, to imperial rule. The previous civil wars left Rome in ruins, but Augustus Caesar repaired Rome, and ushered in a two hundred year period of stability known as Pax Romana, or Roman Peace. During the Pax Romana, Rome would see a series of emperors- some admirable, such as Augustus or Marcus Aurelius, and some wicked, like Caligula and Nero. In the midst of these rulers, a new religious movement known as Christianity was forming, which would ultimately shape Roman history forever. Rome gradually became too large to sustain itself, and eventually collapsed. Political instability, plagues, economic hardships, and constant attacks from barbarians eventually took their toll. The Eastern Roman Empire would survive for another thousand years as the Byzantine Empire, while the Western Roman Empire collapsed, and plunged Western Europe into the Dark Ages.
The rise and fall of Rome would influence Western Civilization as it is known today.
- 3.5 Demonstrate an understanding of how and why humans have explored and migrated across Earth.
- 6.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the organization and transformation(s) of world civilizations to 550.
- 7.4 Analyze the cultural, economic, environmental, physical, political, and population geographies of contemporary Europe.
- 7.4.4.HS Compare and contrast the dynamic physical and human conditions that lead to the creation of ethnic, gender, language, and religious landscapes of European societies.
- 7.4.5.HS Identify and analyze the current political borders using maps, and explain the connections between European countries based upon centripetal and centrifugal forces, as well as connections between European places and other continents.
- USG.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental historical and philosophical principles and ideas that led to the development of the American constitutional democracy.