Rome faced numerous conflicts during the days of the Republic, including defending the Italian peninsula against the Gauls, and fighting three 'Punic Wars' against its rival neighbor, Carthage. Rome gained a significant amount of land and capital from its victories in the Punic Wars, but these victories would ultimately lead to the Republic's fall. Political instability and military reforms gave rise to dictatorships, such as those of Sulla and Julius Caesar. Caesar became the most powerful man in Rome, and after his assassination at the hands of Optimate senators, Rome suffered a series of civil wars. These civil wars resulted in the republic's transition to an empire, beginning with the reign of Augustus Caesar in 27 B.C.
- This indicator allows students to work with maps and mapping tools to show where migration, as described in the previous indicator, affects populations in both sending and receiving locations.
- This indicator was developed to promote inquiry into turning points in the organization and transformation of the four major classical civilizations in China, Greece, India, and Rome. This indicator was also developed to foster inquiry into the cultural and technological advancements of the classical civilizations that continue to influence modern societies.
- This indicator was designed to encourage inquiry into the distribution and pattern of culture traits within the European continent, how they emerge, and how those patterns can change over time as they diffuse to other locations or contract and even disappear when confronted by other culture traits.
- 7.4.4.HS Compare and contrast the dynamic physical and human conditions that lead to the creation of ethnic, gender, language, and religious landscapes of European societies.
- This indicator was designed to encourage inquiry into the various ways that spaces have been divided and controlled within the European continent by different culture groups throughout history.