With its navy destroyed, the Japanese have come to recognize that their last line of defense is through suicide attacks on American ships. From the American ships, the kamikazes looked like a swarm of bees. They targeted big ships and every ship they could find, including hospital ships. The casualties were horrendous. Okinawa happened almost in a vacuum of good news coming from Europe, the Potsdam Conference, the Allies were insisting on an unconditional surrender, and the Russians were beginning to negotiate, and the Japanese high command was hopeful that they would come in on the side of the Japanese, or that the Russians would be the broker that brought Japan to the peace table. There was hope that the Americans would recognize the horrendous cost on Okinawa, as they had on Iwo Jima.