African herbal medicine traditions remained an important part of health care practices in the slave communities. Even after the war, when the Freedman's Bureau and northern educators tried to teach former slaves the advantages of European health and medical practices, African folk medicine continued its influence through the work of Granny midwives. At the Penn School, in the early 20th century, Granny midwives, photographed here in 1910, were taught modern hygiene in special classes; with very few African-American doctors available in the Lowcountry, their skills were an important community resource.
From the Penn School Collection. Permission granted by Penn Center, Inc., St. Helena Island, SC.
- This indicator was developed to encourage inquiry into founding principles as viewed through this period of federal government involvement, the development and realignment of a new labor system not based on a system of slavery, and the significant political realignment of the South.
- This indicator was developed to encourage inquiry into the significant causes of World War I and the factors leading to U.S. involvement. This indicator was also developed to promote inquiry into the effects of the war, to include its impact on the homefront, migration patterns, and continued foreign policy debates.