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Mt. Zion Rosenwald School was built in 1925, as an elementary school. It was the first public school for African American students in the Mars Bluff community.
The school was constructed with matching funds from the Julius Rosenwald Fund, created by the chief executive officer of Sears, Roebuck, and Company to improve education for African American children in the South.
The construction of Mt. Zion Rosenwald School marked a major change in the educational opportunities for students in the Mars Bluff area. An earlier school, sponsored by Mt. Zion Methodist Church, was held in a building that had burned in the early 1920s.
The Mt. Zion Rosenwald School, constructed according to plans developed by the Rosenwald Fund, was soundly built with large windows to bring in light.
Mt. Zion Rosenwald School usually operated on a four or five-month calendar in which two or three teachers taught grades 1-6. It closed in 1952 when a new Mars Bluff Consolidated School opened.